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If you are unfamiliar with music production, you may believe that these two terms are synonymous. Music production entails a variety of processes. Additionally, there are numerous steps involved in the completion of a song or audio track. When considering the process of creating a musical composition, it begins with idea generation and progresses through mixing and mastering.
The first step in post-production is mixing. The music producer is responsible for two processes: idea generation and arrangement. Following completion of the arrangement, the track is sent to mixing and mastering engineers. This is the stage at which the track is shaped in the manner in which it will be played on all entertainment devices.
Additionally, mixing entails a number of sub processes. Mixing begins with adjusting the song’s overall volume and progresses to completely optimizing it so that it is ready for the next process, mastering. Certain individuals believe that these two processes are identical. They are not identical in reality. These processes are sufficiently complex to be delegated to two distinct individuals.
This is one of the reasons why each professional audio release will feature a dedicated mixing and mastering engineer. Mixing and mastering are critical steps in the completion of the audio production process because they determine how the song will sound in the end.
The mixing engineer begins the process immediately after the song is arranged, whereas the mastering engineer can begin the mastering process only after the mixing engineer has completed the mixing process. The mastering engineer’s job is to ensure that the final release is smooth and suitable for commercial release, whereas the mixing engineer’s job is to work on the arrangement to ensure that the song’s message stays true to its original intent.
Knowing that mixing and mastering are two distinct processes does not automatically translate into an understanding of how mixing and mastering engineers work. I’ll walk you through everything you need to know about mixing and mastering engineers’ processes, as well as how a song is prepared for commercial release, in this article. Let us begin, shall we?
What is a mixing engineer?
A mixing engineer’s role is to oversee the mixing process and ensure that the project is ready for mastering. Sometimes the mixing engineer’s role is overshadowed by what they do during a mixing session.
In the case of small projects, the producer performs the mixing himself. In these instances, only a few elements are involved. When considering large-scale projects with thousands of elements that must be mixed flawlessly, the role of a mixing engineer becomes apparent.
These mixing engineers begin by analyzing the product they have been given. They begin with the song’s arrangement and correct any inconsistencies. Once the clean-up process is complete, the mixing engineer’s real work begins.
Following that, the process of adding space to the mix’s elements and working on other aspects of the song begins, which includes leveling and panning all of the elements. The majority of the song’s issues will be resolved at the conclusion of the mixing process.
The mixing engineer’s precise role is to ensure that, regardless of volume, you can hear the intricacies in the mix and enjoy the music uninterrupted. Most mixing engineers fail when they stray from the song’s original message. If you can make an arrangement sound good without distorting the song’s message, you’ve done your job well.
Activities of a mixing engineer
When a mixing engineer begins work on a project, he receives the entire project file from the producer, along with the song’s message and desired sound. Additionally, some producers will provide reference tracks based on how they envision the final track sounding.
This information is critical for a mixing engineer to ensure that the final product does not deviate from the original concept. Occasionally, producers will withhold information about what they want from the mixing session; in these cases, as a mixing engineer, you must inquire about what they want the mix to represent.
What the majority of people do not understand is that mixing is not a process that can be completed by simply clicking a button. The way you mix a song will vary depending on the song. Occasionally, you’ll find yourself combining different ideas and processes for songs from the same album and genre.
It is inherent in the mixing process. The ability to determine what a song requires to sound epic is where a mixing engineer’s skill lies. Here is an article that can assist you in developing a high quality mix. The producer’s information is critical for a mixing engineer because even a minor mixing error can completely alter the way a song sounds in the end.
The mixing process begins with arrangement cleanup; the mixing engineer will go over each element in the mix to determine whether or not it is necessary for the song. Additionally, he will ensure that the elements are within the proper frequency ranges.
This is necessary in order to achieve a balanced mix at the conclusion of the mixing session. If the song’s arrangements are not checked, we may end up with a top-heavy or bottom-heavy song, which is simply a song with more bass or treble. Once a song has been cleaned up, the process shifts to individual elements, during which engineers go over each element and group them for mixing.
After grouping the elements, the process of analyzing them based on their need for space in the mix begins. If any elements require additional space, effects such as reverb, delay, compression, limiting, and saturation are applied.
One of the most amazing aspects of mixing is that it’s like a magical potion that can completely transform a song. Compression and limiting are two techniques that will be repeated throughout the mastering process. Throughout the mixing process, light compression is used to ensure that the song’s message remains intact.
The final stage of mixing is to ensure that the track is prepared for mastering. When the track is sent to the mastering session, the master volume is kept below -6db. Maintaining a low volume level allows for more room for dynamics and workspace for the mastering engineer.
Who is a mastering engineer?
A mastering engineer ensures that a song is completely ready for commercial release in terms of how it sounds across all entertainment platforms. The final phase in the audio process of production is mastering..
It is the final stage of the process in which final adjustments are made and the song is pushed to its maximum volume without destroying the audio. A mastering engineer processes the mixed audio file that the mixing engineer sends and ensures that the track is pushed to its volume and dynamics limits.
Mastering is a delicate process; if you alter the song too much, you risk destroying it. This is one of the reasons mastering engineers can take a long time at times, even if the project can be completed in ten minutes.
Another issue that mastering engineers face is listening fatigue, which requires them to spend considerable time analyzing the song prior to sending it to the distributor for commercial release.
Becoming a mastering engineer is also not simple. The mastering process begins with identifying problematic frequencies in the audio project and also with determining the level of harmonization required to make the song sound great.
Numerous processes such as compression, saturation, and limiting are used to extract the maximum performance from the audio project. One of the most critical tasks a mastering engineer performs is determining the problematic frequency that differentiates a good engineer from the rest.
Activities of a mastering engineer
A mastering engineer’s first step is to determine whether the track is under -6db or not. If it is not within the -6db range, he returns the project or requests a mixed version of the same project. This is a critical detail that you will not find anywhere that discusses mastering.
The ultimate goal of mastering is to create an audio project that is aesthetically pleasing to listen to. If the song’s volume is greater than -6db, the dynamics will be too high for a mastering engineer to work with.
This is why mastering engineers return projects with a volume greater than -6db. It is impossible to improve results with a track that has already lost a significant amount of dynamics.
Compression is the second stage of mastering; the mastering engineer checks each and every element of the audio project to ensure that none of the song’s components exceed an unsuitable dynamic range for the project.
Dynamic range, in its simplest form, is the volume difference between the highest and lowest volume levels in an element or even an entire song.
Excessive compression results in a flat sounding song; without compression, the song sounds aggressive and raw. Proper compression with appropriate ratios will help define and shape the song’s highs and lows.
Equalization is the next step in the process. Equalization is a process that regulates undesirable frequencies or resonant frequencies. The tracks are inspected to ensure that the overarching resonant frequencies have been tamed or completely eliminated.
This is a critical step in ensuring that the song sounds exactly how the producer intended it to sound during the idea generation process.
If the equalization process is not done properly, you will end up with a track that is densely packed with resonant frequencies, obstructing the song’s natural flow and the elements contained within.
If you over-equalize a mixed track, you’ll end up with an empty track devoid of life. Always keep your mastering adjustments to a minimum.
Saturation is the final and final step in mastering before limiting. Saturation is a technique that exaggerates harmonies in order to make the song sound more natural. Saturation unites all the elements and gives the listener the impression that the entire song is emanating from a single instrument.
Once saturation is added, the limiting process begins. Certain individuals prefer limiting, while others prefer clipping. When limiting is used, the details above 0db are pushed against a wall, whereas when clipping is used, they are clipped away.
Limiting is a process that requires extreme caution, as it is possible to end up with an unpleasant song that was intended to sound pleasant.
The line is extremely fine in terms of how much a song or audio track can be restricted. This is where the mastering engineer’s experience comes in handy.
A skilled mastering engineer will always know when to stop limiting and how much to limit each track to extract the maximum performance from it.
Is mixing and mastering hard?
For anyone just getting started in music production, mixing and mastering are two processes that require additional time to master. Knowing the theory will not help you at all with mixing and mastering.
You must experiment with various scenarios and hone your ears in order to become proficient at mixing and mastering. Mixing and mastering are more about experience and musical taste than they are about musical knowledge.
Can you mix and master at the same time?
No, mixing and mastering cannot be done concurrently. Mastering is the final step in completing a song; it occurs immediately after mixing. You cannot master a song and then mix it, as this will destroy the song’s dynamics and make any recovery of the elements used impossible. It is not possible to master before mixing or even to do so concurrently. This effectively eliminates the need for mixing and mastering.
How do Beginners mix and master?
The best way to begin mixing and mastering is to complete your songs first, rather than sending them to a mixing and mastering engineer. This way, you’ll have more time to experiment with what works on each mixing and mastering trail. Even though there are numerous shortcuts for mixing and mastering, experience is the secret to improving at mixing and mastering.
How can I mix songs for free?
If you’d like to learn how to mix songs for free, the only way to do so is to learn how to produce music. Once you’ve mastered the art of music production, you’ll understand how to use audio production software. This enables you to mix songs, edit them as desired, and also publish them for commercial release. If you’re not interested in learning how to produce music, there are services on Fiverr where you can outsource the work to others.
How do you mix and master vocals?
Few people understand that mixing and mastering a vocal performance is entirely different from mixing and mastering a song. When mixing vocals, you must pay close attention to detail in how you process each section of the song, which is not necessary when processing an entire song.
This is also true for mastering; because there is only one factor to consider, small changes have a significant effect on how it sounds in the end.
How loud should my mix be before mastering?
The sweet spot for mixing prior to mastering is exactly -6db on your master track’s loudness meter. Allowing your master track to exceed -6db ensures that the track retains all of the information necessary for processing the song in the mastering session without issue.
If you’re new to music production, jump right into mixing and mastering; nowadays, artists prefer to hire a music producer who is familiar with both aspects of song production in order to get the song ready for release. This also saves considerable time.
Acquiring proficiency in mixing and mastering takes time; avoiding frustration over minor errors is a significant part of the learning experience gained while working on mixing and mastering projects. The level of attention to detail required is quite different from that of a music producer.